Exactly how many Covid-19 vaccines are there?

As of the writing of this I am aware of the following vaccines in development to inoculate against COVID-19. I rank them by a quasi-objective “farthest along” scale.

  1. AstraZeneca and University of Oxford vaccine. In Phase 3 clinical trialing (with a pause). The vaccine uses a a genetic sequence encoding for a protein on surface of the novel coronavirus. On September 8, 2020 a hold was placed on the trial following a suspect adverse reaction in a participant.
  2. Moderna Therapeutics vaccine, mRNA-1273. In Phase 3 clinical trialing. The vaccine uses a synthetic messenger RNA molecule encoding a protein found on the novel coronavirus. Moderna identified a candidate approximately 40 days after the virus’s genome was sequenced. What this vaccine has done to the company’s stock price is nothing short of extraordinary. 
  3. BioNTech and Pfizer vaccine. In Phase 3 clinical trialing. Fosun Pharma signed a deal to ensure BioNTech’s vaccine would be approved in China. Pfizer is co-developing the vaccine for the rest of the world.
  4. CanSino Biologics vaccine. In Phase 2 trialing. Vaccine uses technology that led to the China-approved Ebola vaccine. A short genetic sequence of the virus is interwoven with harmless viral genetic material to encourage antibody development.
  5. Sinovac vaccine. In Phase 2 trials. A Chinese company that has developed vaccines in the past for avian flu, hand-food-mouth disease, hepatitis A and B, and swine flu. On June 14, the company released data indicated neutralizing antibodies were produces in “above 90%” of participants.
  6. Inovio Pharmaceuticals vaccine. In Phase 1. A company that has worked to introduce DNA into medicine for decades, has developed a “DNA vaccine” to generate protective antibodies. The company has yet to provide data on the immune response claimed in 94% of patients.
  7. Novavax vaccine. In Phase 1. Beginning in the ovaries of insects and ending attached to spike proteins found on the surface of the novel coronavirus. 
  8. GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi vaccine. In Phase 1. Two giant corporations are mixing one’s peanut butter (precise proteins to train one’s immune system) with the other’s chocolate (a proprietary additive that makes a vaccine more potent, known as an adjuvant). On September 3, the companies announced beginning a 400-patient trial whose data we all expect to see approximately around December!
  9. Johnson & Johnson vaccine. Preclinical. As a big company with deep pockets and a deep bench of experts to call upon, Johnson & Johnson can mobilize on scale in a way others can’t. Phase 1 is expected to start Soon™.
  10. Arctus Therapetucus vaccine. Preclinical. A nanoparticle infused with RNA virus sits at the heart of this vaccine. Developed in partnership with Duke, Phase 1 will begin in Singapore.
  11. Merck vaccine. Preclinical. With their purchase of Themis, Merck decided to base their vaccine on a measles vaccine. Has also announced partnerwithing with a nonprofit organization for development and deployment in the developing world.
  12. CureVac vaccine. Preclinical. The company got a grant from the nonprofit Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations to scale up their mRNA-based vaccine.
  13. Imperial College London vaccine. Preclinical. A few animal studies have shown a few protective antibodies.
  14. University of Queensland vaccine. Preclinical. This company also got a grant from the nonprofit Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, Human trials are planned.